The knowledge of the science teacher should extend beyond the boundaries of the textbook which has been provided to the students.According to the National Curriculum, the teaching of science at Keystage 1 and 2 involves offering children opportunities to develop knowledge and understanding of important scientific ideas, processes and skills and relate these to everyday experiences. Children learn about ways of thinking, of finding out and communicating ideas and they explore values and attitudes through science.
The teaching of science is one area that lends itself to the use of technology in delivering resources to teachers, and for teachers to use in the classroom. The practical aspect of science subjects revolves around the ethos of experimentation, testing and observation and introduces children to the concepts of observation involving all the senses. In addition, the introduction of new languages using shapes and patterns, symbols for electrical circuits, chemical elements, reactions and physical forces, are often best delivered using technical resources such as interactive whiteboards, overhead and digital projectors.
From the teacher’s point of view, there are two aspects to helping children understand the world around them and the natural processes that are going on. Roughly split into practical and theoretical elements of teaching, they show or describe the natural processes that are occurring and explain to children what they are observing, including the theory behind the process.
Key Stage 1 and 2 Science is broken down into four main topic areas: scientific enquiry, life processes and living things, materials and their properties, and physical processes.
Children are taught the importance of collecting evidence by making observations and measurements when trying to answer a science question. They should be taught about planning their investigation and be able to frame their questions (who, what, where, what happens if?), use first-hand experience and simple information sources to answer questions. They should think about what might happen before deciding what to do and to recognise when a test or comparison is unfair.
When obtaining and presenting evidence, children should follow simple instructions to keep themselves and other users safe in the classroom. They will be able to make observations using appropriate senses and record accurate observations and measurements. Throughout, they will be shown the importance of ICT in the recording and presentation of their results, using spreadsheets to record results and build graphs and charts to display data via computers or interactive whiteboards.
When considering evidence and evaluating it, children should make comparisons with the data and identify simple patterns and associations. They will be able to compare what actually happened with what they expected to happen and explain it using their knowledge and understanding. Finally, they will be able to review their work and be able to explain to others what they did using the flexibility of computers or interactive whiteboards, overhead or digital projectors.
Life Processes and Living Things
Children should be taught the difference between living plants and animals and things that have never lived such as certain rocks and minerals. For example, animals, including human beings, use their senses to feed, grow and reproduce. Children should relate life processes to plants and animals that live in the local environment.
They will be able to recognise the main body parts of humans and other animals and that they reproduce and produce offspring which develop into adults. Pupils should be able to recognise the main parts of green plants and that they need light and water to grow. They should be able to comment on the variation and classification of the different groups of plants and animals, with particular emphasis on the local environment and the importance of caring for their local environment.
Materials and their Properties
In this area, children are taught to use their senses to recognise the similarities and differences between materials and sort objects into groups on the basis of simple material properties. They should be able to recognise and name the common types of material and understand that some of them are found naturally. They will also understand how materials can be changed by heating, bending, squashing, twisting and stretching.
Children should be able to understand physical processes, such as electricity, forces and motion, and light and sound.
Pupils should be taught about everyday items that use electricity and make simple circuits using batteries, wires, bulbs and other components.
When studying forces and motion, pupils should find out about the movement of various common objects and the forces that cause them to move, accelerate, slow down or change direction.
And for light and sound, pupils should be able to identify various sources of light, including the sun and that darkness is the absence of light. They will discover that there are many kinds and sources of sound, and find out how sound travels away from the source getting quieter as it does. They will understand the sense of sound and its detection through the ear.
In conclusion, today’s teachers of science have technologically advanced assistants in the form of modern touch screen computers, interactive whiteboards and overhead and digital projectors, all using sight and sound to convey the elements of Key Stage 1 and 2 science to children at school.
SEED is a volunteer-based, nonprofit education program focused on underserved communities where Schlumberger people live and work. SEED empowers employee-volunteers and educators—including teachers, parents and other mentors—to share their passion for learning and science with students aged 10-18. The SEED learning-while-doing (LWD) methodology draws on the technology and science expertise of their volunteers to engage students in global issues, such as water, energy and climate change.